General Features of Animals

 

1. heterotrophy

2. mobility

3. multicellularity

4. diploidy (adults have two copies of chromosomes)

5. sexual reproduction

6. absence of a cell wall

7. blastula formation

8. tissues

 

 

Types of Animals

Phylum

Examples

Milestone

Porifera

sponges

multicellularity

Cnidaria

jellyfish, hydra, coral

Tissues, stingers

Platyhelminthes

flatworms

bilateral symmetry

Nematoda

roundworms

pseudocoelom

Mollusca

clams, squids, snails

coelom

Annalida

earthworms, leeches

segmentation

Arthropoda

insects, spiders, crustaceans

jointed appendages

Echinodermata

starfish

deuterostomes

Chordata

vertebrates

notochord

 

From: http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/notes-chap28.html

 

 

 


 

Animal Body Systems

1. Digestion

a. Gastrovascular cavity - one opening

b. Digestive tract (gut)- two openings (one for food intake, one for waste expelling)

2. Respiration - taking in oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide

a. Diffusion across moist surfaces (earthworm)

b. Gills in aquatic animals

c. Lungs in terretrial animals

3. Circulation - how oxygen and nutrients are transported throughout body

a. Open Circulatory System - some vessels, body cavity is "washed" with blood

b. Closed Circulatory System - all blood is enclosed in vessels, capillaries deliver to organs

4. Nervous System - coordinates the activities of the animal body

a. Neurons - nerve cells that send impulses

b. Nerve Net - network of neurons, very little coordination

c. Ganglion - clusters of neurons (simple brain)

d. Brain - sensory structures and neurons located at anterior end, complex coordination and behavior

5. Support -how the body maintains its shape

a. Hydrostatic skeleton - water pressure (jellyfish, worms)

b. Exoskeleton - outside skeleton (insects and crabs)

c. Endoskeleton - inside skeleton (vertebrates)

6. Excretion - the removal of wastes from the body

a. Diffusion can release wastes in simple aquatic animals

b. Excretory system in terrestrial animals removes waste without loss of water

7. Reproduction - process by which organisms make more of their own kind

a. Asexual reproduction - reproduction only needs 1 parent, offspring are identical

1) regeneration - fragmentation and regrowth (sponges)

2)  budding - growth of a clone and release (hydra)

3) parthenogenesis - rare, individual develops from unfertilized eggs

b. Sexual reproduction - reproduction involves the joining of egg and sperm (2 parents)

1) Hermaphrodite - animals that produce both egg & sperm, have both sexes (earthworm)

2) External Fertilization - sperm is released into water where it fertilizes eggs in the water

3) Internal Fertilization - sperm and egg join within the body of the female

8. Gestation (?)

a. External (eggs, etc.)

b. Internal